The Political Speech as a Monodrama

The primary purpose of a speech is to convince. A speech is not a lecture, an information system, a documentary nor a narrative. It is an argument by the speaker for or against a particular system of thoughts and actions. Objections have to be confronted and overcome through persuasion.
 As a theatre person, I see the speaker as an actor – an artist who performs before an audience; or as a lion-tamer in a dangerous arena. Anything can happen at any moment. The speech should have the suspense of a tightrope walker, and thereby rivets our attention and enthralls us; as does the speaker who establishes his ability through his speech.
 It has been discovered during the past twenty years just how often a theatre group has taken on the role of the local community leader. The actors and others involved in the theatrical activities became leaders at various levels and in different areas. During the course of time I established a special course ‘Leadership through Drama’, the aim of which was to reinforce local leadership through the use of available dramatic and theatrical tools. We attempted to attain the same results that develop from the work of an actor in the theatre, but this time in reverse, starting from the end of the process; that is, from the ordinary community leader to dramatic activities.
 We arranged a course for a group of local community leaders, similar to a preparatory course for actors. The group was chosen after interviews. The course included analysis of the leader and his dealings with the public; creating and presenting a political figure to the public; speechmaking – writing, directing and presenting to the public; acting in front of the camera and microphone, etc. Above all, emphasis was laid on understanding the dramatic motives that led the actor to face the audience.
 During the course we increasingly encountered parallels between the political meeting and the theatrical event, which is a meeting between actor and audience, with a mutual agreement to ‘play a social game’ called ‘theatre’, in the same way that the political meeting comprises an audience and a speaker/actor who agree to ‘play a social game’ called ‘politics’.
 These two social games both gain their sustenance from the drama. In the theatre this is a purely artistic drama, presented before an audience in the framework of a play, by the actor; while the drama in the political event is part of the dramatic reality presented in the framework of the speech by the speaker to an audience.
 The purpose of this article is to examine those parallels between the drama of a theatrical play and that of the political speech, as well as the presentation of the speech as a true ‘performance’ – in this case a ‘monodrama’. In the following, I shall provide speech writers with ten working principles .that parallel the principles of creating a play

The Theatrical and the Political Events
 The theatre is a collective art incorporating a variety of individual arts that together create the ‘play’, in the same way that a collection of individual persons combine to form the audience. The theatrical event is basically political, in that it brings together a variety of ordinary citizens for a mutual purpose, at a mutual time and location. Nonetheless, we do not relate to the theatrical event in the same way as a political one but, rather, as an encounter for the purpose of an artistic experience. As already mentioned, those same individuals who meet at a particular place – the theatre, a particular time – the play, and for a particular purpose – the artistic experience, have agreed amongst themselves to play a social game that creates the theatre and the artistic experience alone, and for no other socio-political agreement.
 The political meeting is, however, also a collective ‘art’. It too is composed of several arts that combine to form the ‘play’, and a collection of individuals who create the audience and arrive at a mutual place and time for the purpose of watching their own particular reality in the form of a speech.
 In the first case, the theatrical event aimed at playing the game of art in all its senses. In the second case, the political event comes into use as an artistic theatrical system for the political purposes of society. Having now determined the analogy between the two, in order to establish a political event with artistic/theatrical/dramatic components, we must relate to the event in the same way as artists relate to a theatrical event.

  1. Creating the drama
    In a theatrical event, the drama is the purpose and main component of the encounter between audience and actor. The conditions that create the drama will be found to possess the same characteristics in presenting both play and the speech. It is inconceivable that a play could be staged without the central drama that constitutes the ‘motor’ of the theatrical event. Thus too is the speech presented in front of an audience: its inherent drama forming the ‘motor’, without which it would not be possible to ‘drive’ the audience to different ‘places’ or viewpoints, etc. (To create drama in a speech, see section ‘The Dramatic Play  and the Dramatic Speech, below).

  2. Establishing an audience environment
    The political meeting is a social encounter and thus requires first and foremost a location, a structure and the cohesion of a social group – the audience. In non-socially aimed theatrical plays however, a particular location is chosen for the audience, and this location determines the process of discourse between the ‘play’ and the audience. Should the spectators be seated indoors or outside? Frontal seating or in a circle? Should the encounter take place in the town square or in city hall? Should the audience be sited below or above stage level? All these questions and many others confront the planners of a theatrical event. In many cases there are pressures regarding location. Overcoming these problems in order to stage a theatrical event is an inseparable part of creating the play. The planners of a political meeting must also take into account the environment in which it is to take place. An important political event may fail simply because of an unsuitable choice of location.
    C. Creating the play
    A staged play is the expression of full cooperation between the various artistic elements. If one of the arts dominates the others (for the better or the worse), it will ‘spoil’ the entire show. The speech, like the play, is an artistic composition: the arts are words, movement, sound, music, as well as the art of speech, design and the entire range of visual elements, all combined to act as one. Beautiful words scattered in a faulty delivery will say nothing; and if the delivery is perfect, each word a pearl of wisdom, but the voice of the speaker resembles a hoarse crow, once again the ‘staging’ of the speech cannot be perfect. The speech can be the best in the world, but if it is presented to the wrong audience, it will be neither heard correctly nor understood. It can be seen, therefore, that there is a great deal more that must be dealt with than merely the written word. 
    D. Staging the event
    If, as mentioned previously, the speech constitutes a complex system like a ‘play’, then it should be produced accordingly. Correct use should be planned in advance of the different arts that will combine to present the speech and to integrate them suitably into the final product to be presented to the audience. The actual performance of the speech by the speaker him/herself is actually the end product, just as the theatrical event is the end product of its combined components.

The Dramatic Play and Dramatic Speech
 The well-made dramatic play is constructed according to the following: exposition; conflict or plot; solution.
The exposition presents the foundations upon which the drama takes place: a composition of characters and environment.
The conflict makes its appearance with the knowledge gained from the exposition. The situation complicates and a dramatic conflict arises against the background of the characters, place and/or time.
The solution comes at the end, with the triumph of one of the characters or sides over another, etc.
 The dramatic speech parallels the play in the following: The exposition contains the basic assumption. Persuasion makes its appearance with the presentation of the opinions conflicting with the basic assumption. Having presented both sides of the argument, the speech then provides a solution. In both cases – play and speech – the conflict serves as a dramatic focal point through which the argument between the main theme/proposal and conflicting ideas is presented.
 (David Ben-Gurion, who possessed an instinctive understanding of the significance of drama, used to say: ‘If you have a small problem for which there is no solution, turn it into a large problem and it will have to be solved.’)
Looking at the speech as a monodrama, it can be seen that its style is similar to that of the social drama, which is built upon placing the conflict before the spectators, and their cooperation in the ensuing dramatic event. If this is so, then it is possible to return to the method of constructing a social play and to follow the exact same steps in systematically creating the speech.

Stages in the production of drama
a) Sources.  A search for dramatic sources constitutes the initial step in any dramatic activity. Impressions are acquired through surveys, observations, involvement, asking questions, and collecting the various materials from which the drama will eventually develop. The search for sources can be a social, group, or community effort, and it can also stem from a personal viewpoint – one can find drama within oneself, in one’s personal story. In the latter case the work will constitute an artistic one that is not intended to be a part of the community drama.
b) Documentation.  Having completed collecting the sources, we now have a documentary ‘file’ of the subject – written material, photographs, tape recordings, etc. The more material that this file contains, the more it will assist us in understanding the complexity of the drama in its entirety.
c) Creating the drama.   This is the decisive stage. Preparations have been completed and we are about to write the play itself, plan the event, and arrive purposefully at the theatre. Playwrights can on occasion ‘get stuck’ in the middle of writing if they do not have enough material collected in the earlier stages. Source collection and documentation constitute a pre-production phase to the play or theatrical event.
d) Producing the drama. At this stage the entire production team gets together – playwright, director, actors, musicians, scene designers, and others, all associates in the same drama.
e) Staging the drama.  Unlike literary works, dramatic writing is intended to be staged before an audience. The audience is therefore an integral part of the drama, and the playwright must bear the potential audience in mind as a partner to the dialogue. (See Principle 8, below: Dramatic dialogue).
f) Running the drama.  What sort of audience will we be facing? How many performances do we intend to give? Where will it be staged? What sort of space will be at our disposal – outdoors, indoors, large, small? All these and many  questions must be discussed right from outset of creating the drama. The answers will have a significant bearing on the entire dramatic process.
 Having outlined these six stages, we can now examine their applicability to creating a speech.
Sources: Every speech writer has an obligation to determine the most relevant details. These will constitute the foundation upon which the speech will be built. It is assumed that the chosen details will not be trivial, for a speech based upon trivialities will have little effect. Each detail incorporated into the speech should contain the ‘drama’, which in turn forms the ‘tool’ to activate the detail itself.
Documentation:  Without organized documentation the speaker will be unable to present the dramatic details to his/her audience. The speaker’s obligation is to verify the findings of the completed documentation, upon which the speech will be based.
Creating the drama:  At this stage, the speaker has documentation based on the full collection of dramatic sources. He/she can now write or prepare the dramatic speech according to the ten principals that will be presented below. (See: Ten Basic Principles in creating a political/dramatic speech).
Producing the drama:  Producing the speech is identical in all stages to producing a play (see below).
Staging the drama:  Staging the speech, like producing it, is also identical to staging a play (see below).
Running the drama:  Here too, the speech will almost certainly be used by the speaker at different times and locations. However, perhaps it is to be written only for a one time event, or should it have universal appeal? During the running-in period the speech will undergo modifications according to the requirements of different communities.
 If these six preliminary stages have been thoroughly considered and planned, then we are now ready to prepare the speech itself. At this stage the Ten Basic Principles method goes into action, and accompanies each and every stage of the work from the writing to the directing and finally to the performance itself. 

Method and application:

 Before analyzing and studying the method of speechwriting according to the ten principles, it should be noted that I do not conceive this system, or indeed any other, as a fixed formula for creating a dramatic work; neither do I possess a ‘formula; for any type of artistic speech. This method is simply an additional tool for use by those whose work in the social fields requires this type of artistic/political creativity.
 The ‘ten basic principles’ method offers an approach to analysis of the speech during the process of its creation and staging. It can also be used to analyze the speech in its concrete form or after its presentation to an audience. The ten principles that follow in order of importance constitute a tool for creating any speech, whether political or aimed at any other social purpose. However, it should be noted that this tool is just that – a tool, and not a content in itself. I do not believe that any method exists to create content, other than the will and ability of the creator him/herself.

The ten principles:

1)  Subject.   
2) Statement.  
3)  Situation.  
4) Storyline.
5)  Characters. 
6)  Place.  
7)  Time.  
8)  Dramatic Dialogue.   
9)  Style or concept. 
10)  Language.

1)  Subject
 The subject is the main point of the speech. It should state, in one sentence, and sometimes even in one word, the content and meaning. A long, rambling definition of the subject is clear-cut evidence for a speech lacking in basic dramatic qualities. Even if more than one subject is to be raised in the speech, there will always be one central theme upon which the emphasis will be laid and around which the secondary themes will revolve.
 For example:  The main subject of Churchill’s speech prior to the outbreak of World War Two was ‘The Approaching War’; or, the main subject of Nixon’s speech before his resignation was ‘An enforced departure’.
 If you begin to write a speech without a defined subject, you are setting off on a very hard path indeed. If the speech’s subject is not clear, if it requires interpretation and explanation, if it does not contain drama, then it will hinder the entire production. When we foundering in a confused speech written (perhaps by the speaker hum/herself) without any central theme upon which to grasp. The subject is always the common focal point for the speech writer and the rest of the ‘production’ team. Upon staging the drama, the subject has a dramatic import, involving a conflict, then it is possible that we may have a good story, or a good lecture – but we do not have a central dramatic theme – and therefore no speech.
 For example, while the subject ‘relationship’ is not dramatic in itself, the subject ‘forbidden relationship’ or ‘secret relationship’ have inherent drama. In the same way, while ‘childhood’ is not in itself dramatic, a ‘hard’, or ‘lost’, or ‘distant childhood’ are subjects charged with meaning. Any image that contains an antithesis to childhood can be a preliminary main subject for creating the relevant drama.
 In summary:  a) The subject requires a clear and briefly defined statement;
b)  The subject should possess dramatic quality.

2)  The Statement
 If we wished to tell a story for its own sake, we could allow ourselves a tale without a moral or a statement. I deliberately employ the word ‘statement’ rather than ‘massage’, for ‘message’ involves different concepts. The reason for using drama, and its power, lies in the desire to make a totally clear statement; and, like the subject, if the statement cannot be summarized in one clear sentence, we will be setting off on our journey either overburdened or under provisioned. To return to the example of Churchill’s speech, we see that his statement later became a slogan: ‘I promise you blood, sweat and tears’. Churchill’s ‘promise’ shortly before the approaching war was fully realized, when his statement ‘blood, sweat and tears’ was experienced in all its horror throughout the world.
 Nixon’s departure from the office of President of the US was an enforced one. Although his weighty statement in his resignation speech – ‘I am not a quitter’, did not greatly help him, it nonetheless shone out like a scarlet thread throughout his emotional speech.
 The statement will be determined immediately after the choice of subject. It in fact defines and limits the subject. Whatever the statement, it should be made in one single clear and comprehensible sentence. If this sentence requires explanation, then the speech’s statement is defective, and may end by spoiling the speech itself.
 In summary:  a) The statement is the outcome of the speech.
                                   b) The statement should be made in one clear sentence, without                                            
                                       additional explanation.

3)  The dramatic situation
 Here, in fact, is where the method comes into play and the speech starts to develop. A dramatic situation must be found upon which to construct the speech.
 The dramatic situation is the main point of a play, and without it we have no link with the drama and dramatic literature. Without a dramatic situation we can create many other things – but not drama. We have undertaken to construct a well made dramatic speech in much the same way as we construct a monodrama.
 In this case too we can determine whether we have a ‘healthy’ and stable dramatic situation, by defining it in one or two sentences. If we cannot focus on a meaningful dramatic situation in two sentences, then we have a problem with the very core of the speech, which will in turn lead to serious problems in its production.
 For clarification, let us return once more to Churchill’s speech. War is on the horizon; nervous tension prevails. The dramatic situation in Churchill’s speech is ‘the British setting off to war against the Germans’.
 We now possess the first three principles in Churchill’s speech: the subject – impending war; the statement – blood, sweat and tears; the situation – Britain setting off to war against Germany.
 In Nixon’s speech the dramatic situation is that of the resignation of the President of the US, set against a background of criminal activity. The tree first principles are therefore: subject – departure; statement – I am not a quitter; situation – the US President resigns over criminal accusations.
 To return once more to an earlier example, the subject ‘hard childhood’ with a different statement can become a different play, in just the same way as different dramatic situation will lead to different plays.
 In summary: a) The dramatic situation should expressed in one or two sentences at most; otherwise it is not clear and suffers from a flawed central structure;  b) The dramatic situation and the central conflict are the core of the play, and thus also of the speech.

4) The storyline
 The art of the story speaks for itself and I shall not go into detail here. Every drama has a storyline. Within the dramatic framework of a play, the story is secondary to the drama, but nevertheless an intrinsic part of the plot.
 The storyline is the most specific element of the speech – what exactly happened? Such and such happened … – the ‘full story’, before the curtain rises and after it falls. What will happen to the characters after the play is over, what happened to them before it began, where did the events occur before, and what will be left after the end of the play and the dramatic situation?   The specific storyline will clearly determine all the actions of all the characters. The storyline, if written in advance of the play, can become a vital source for a well equipped approach to the dramatic situation.
 A speech that does not incorporate a storyline – in addition to the subject, statement, and dramatic situation – will be a ‘dry’ speech or perhaps an ‘academic’ one. The storyline constitutes part of creating the specific, personal link with the audience. By means of the story, greater emotional audience participation will be achieved.
 In summary: The dramatic situation lies at the heart of the speech. The storyline provides the framework for the dramatic situation and a direct and detailed link with the emotions of the audience. Every desired detail can be inserted into it, according to the capacity of speaker and listener.

5) The characters
 In a dramatic play there are characters. If the dramatic speech is a sort of monodrama, then the speaker is the central figure. However, alongside this central figure there will also appear other imaginary characters – those to whom the speaker refers. When the speaker performs, he/she is in fact ‘acting’ a dramatic character who presents spoken words in the framework of a speech. The other characters will be ‘played’ by the speaker exactly as he himself would like to see them played to an audience. He may distort them, or make them greater then life. Perhaps he will diminish them in order to strengthen his argument. (See Julius Caesar by Shakespeare, how Anthony in his speech depicts Brutus and company: ‘For Brutus is an honorable man; so are they all honorable men’. When he reiterates this several times during his speech, Brutus and company become increasingly subject to mockery until the crowd turns against them).
 In speeches made shortly before the outbreak war, such as that of Churchill’s, the speaker will depict the characters of the enemy as an antagonist, according to the rules of dramatic conflict. The mother, vulnerable to her sons’ potential injury or death, will be depicted in the speech as a character that must be defended. And, of course, the ‘heroes’ (the protagonist) will come to her defense against the cruel enemy.
 In summary:  The speech, like the play, requires the ‘building’ of credible dramatic character. The speaker is the main character who presents him/herself and the other characters ‘hidden’ from the audience’s view.

6) The place
 The place in which the subject, the statement, the dramatic satiation, the storyline and the characters all occur, will, if located elsewhere, make a different play. (Shakespeare’s setting of Hamlet in Elsinor in Denmark was deliberate – what would have happened if he had located the play in a castle in England? Would Shakespeare have continued to write plays in Britain following this?)
The speech in an open town square is subject to different rules to the speech in closed room. A speech in a cemetery will have a totally different structure to a speech made to children in their school hall, etc.
 The written speech must take into account the location and time of the event just as if it were a theatrical/dramatic event. The very existence of the speech in one dimension or another can completely change its significance. On television it will appear in one way, and on the stage of a theatre it will appear in another. The main auditorium of the United Nations is not the family living room. The place will dictate the dramatic basis of the speech, which should therefore be prepared accordingly.


7) The time
 Time is a dramatic component. It can constitute the foundation for any drama. A speech that does not take into account the significance of time may let the speaker down. Two temporal components exist: the actual time and the time to which the speaker relates.
 If a speaker whishes to rely on historical elements, he should present a dramatic historical situation from history. In this way he will be acting like the playwright who distances the drama from the present to a historical past, and thus provides an analogue with the present situation.
 Just as the time related to, whether past or present, should be specific and clear, so too should be the actual timing of the speech: before or after a crisis; on a holiday or work day; morning or evening; a short or a long speech, and so on.

8) Dramatic dialogue
 The dramatic dialogue in a social play is mainly between the play and its audience; so too in a political/dramatic speech: the speech is a dialogue with an audience. The speaker almost certainly does not talk to himself or to his colleagues on the platform. In every speech the dramatic dialogue is with the audience, and it is necessary to discern whether the audience is the antagonist and the speaker the protagonist. For an example, we can examine the fiery speeches of the prophet at the gates, or of evangelical preachers (they turn directly to their audience, taking their guilt for granted, and loudly proclaim their message of morality). In another example, the speaker may present himself as the antagonist for the purpose of the speech, with the audience as protagonist, and the speech will be placatory and full of flattery, regret, apology, etc. In this case, the speaker is a sort of ‘sacrificial victim’ on the audience’s altar. (It is unlikely that any normal politician would wish to take this sort of speech voluntarily!)
 Every audience requires a different sort of dramatic dialogue which will in turn alter the significance of the speech. A speech directed at one particular audience but presented to another will appear in a different light. A hostile audience will receive a different dramatic dialogue than a friendly one, despite the speech having the same subject and statement, and most certainly the same dramatic situation.
 If the speaker in an ‘internal’ one, ‘one of us’, the speech will make use of specific names and places, familiar to the listeners, but none of which would have any relevance for an audience unfamiliar with the speaker. If the speaker amuses himself with a flowery speech, but fails to establish a dramatic dialogue takes place between the speech, through means of the speaker, and the target audience.

9) Style or concept
 The style or concept cannot be chosen haphazardly. The speech writer makes a deliberate choice of whether the speech will be written, for example, in a poetic or a symbolic style. Perhaps a deliberate choice of comic or satirical style will be made, or grotesque elements will be employed. There is a reason for choice of style – it constitutes the ‘sting’ of the dramatic speech.
 Even those speech writers or speakers who are associated with a particular style will slightly adapt that style when the situation demands it. Reading from a written speech is also a style, and not only chosen because the speaker has not learnt the contents by heart. Improvising a speech according to listeners’ reactions is another style, as are haranguing an audience, or flattering, or pathos, etc.
 Just as the style and concept finalize the contract between the writer and his/her work, so too is the case with creative speaker. A choice of style is his/her personal statement as well as the contract between speaker and speech as a dramatic, literary work.

10) Language
 A play is usually written in the mother-tongue of the writer or the country in which it is written. Translations come later. Writers from many different countries translate plays into their own language and adapt them for the local stage with its own local perceptions.
 The speech does not benefit from all the privileges of drama. The choice of language is fundamental; not every speaker can speak every language. Sometimes, if the speaker is to speak in foreign country, he will have no choice but to have the speech translated, whether simultaneously or otherwise.
 Let us assume, however, that you have a choice of any language. It is unlikely that you would choose a language different to that of your audience! Nonetheless, the knowledge of one language does not always constitute a substitute for another. (Mr. Abba Eban, for example, a noted linguist, gave speeches in many languages. However, audiences preferred to hear him speak Hebrew).
 If you come from one particular ethnic community in the U.S., for example, perhaps the insertion of words or phrases in your native tongue can induce a greater identification with the subject matter. For certain communities in Israel, speaking their native tongue rather than Hebrew puts them at a disadvantage, particularly within the same ethic group. This is sometimes seen as a failure of the speaker to ‘assimilate’ into the general Israeli society, having remained an ethnic individual rather than a national one.
 Some audiences, such as children, adolescents, or various other population groups, possess their own language. A speech given to children requires knowledge of contemporary children’s ‘language’, just as using the appropriate slang will bring the speaker closer to the adolescent experience.
 Language is a communication tool. In certain cases it is also a dramatic one. The choice of language for a speech, if taken into account in advance, will take care of a considerable portion of the ‘work’.


For the sake of additional clarity I present below several brief examples. However, do remember that an example is only an example and does not necessarily prove a general rule.

Example 1 – A speech for a local neighborhood cut off from the city.
 A group of young local people are active in a certain neighborhood in the centre of Israel. Following many meetings and discussions it was decided to carry out a local survey to determine whether the inhabitants really were suffering from a lack of communication between the municipality and the specific neighborhood.
(Sources) The survey did indeed reveal all the deficiencies that were a consequence of the big city’s detachment from the local neighborhood, with its population of 20,000 inhabitants. (In other places the area could have legally opted to become an autonomous local authority).
 It was found that the neighborhood was separated physically, geographically and socially, as well as politically and from religious viewpoint. All the findings were assembled (Documentation). The group decided to tackle the situation and began by arranging meetings with local audiences and those from the big city, as well as organizing demonstrations throughout the country.

(The Storyline is imaginary). Following is an example of a ‘scenario’ for a speech prepared by the head of the activist group:
Subject: Independence for the neighborhood as an autonomous authority.
Statement: We are a time bomb within the city.
Situation: The neighborhood’s youth are failing their matriculation examinations due to a crisis in the local education system. Their dejection is leading to the use of drugs.
Storyline: The neighborhood is a substitute for a transit camp built on the sand dunes across the main road. For years it was dependent on various political factors, until the neighboring big city came along and ‘was given’ the area, with all its attendant problems requirements.
 At this point we encounter the personal stories of various group members born in the neighborhood, who have overcome the hardships and succeeded in breaking out of the vicious circle of extreme poverty. (From here, of course, the storyline can continue in any way that appeals to the imagination of the writer).
Characters: Gabby – the speaker; Mr. Schwartz – Mayor of the big city (an unseen but familiar figure); Jack – a native of the problem neighborhood, has a doctorate in mathematics (one of the group activists); Guy, Dan, Ronnie, Iris – local youths with a drug problem (sitting in the audience); Sam, Rina – the Mayor’s son and daughter (unseen characters); Rosa – the speaker’s mother (unseen); neighborhood inhabitants.
(Here too, each character to tell a tale will receive its own explanation, situation, subject, statement, etc.)
Place: The town square outside the municipality.
Time: Winter. Day. Afternoon. (The neighborhood inhabitants have declared an all out strike at both workplaces and schools).
Dramatic dialogue: The local inhabitants against the municipality. (The audience in the town square, local citizens and passers by).
Style: Vehement argument. 
Language: Hebrew.
 The following can serve as a useful exercise:
a) Given the above criteria, a particular speech can be written.
b) Try to ‘transfer’ the speaker to a school, speaking to a parents’ organization. What will change?
c)  Try to transfer the speech to cable television. What will happen to the style?
d) The speaker will mention his personal story that of his mother and of Jack, as well as the stories of the drug addicted youths. In contract, the major will present his son and daughter, who have been educated in the city’s centralized education system, etc. Will he speak and act in the same way when he faces the Parliamentary committee to present the same subject and statement. If he does not make use of the same characters, who will he use? What characters would you suggest be added?
e)  Choose another style and examine its effect on place and time.


Example 2 – A speech intended for International Children’s Day
Subject – battered children.
Statement – a battered child will become a violent parent.
Situation – the struggle of a violent mother to prevent her daughter being taken into custody.
Storyline – Rita has been divorced for two years. She lives with her four year old daughter Tal. Unable to control herself, the mother daily turns her child into a punch bag upon whom she takes out her anger, the neighborhood complain, the police intervene, the social services are called upon to deal with the case, and the social worker advises that the daughter be taken out of her mother’s custody.
Characters – Dr. Mira Goldreich – the speaker; Rita – the mother; Alma – the social worker.
Place – The Hilton Hotel, at a fund raising evening to establish the Association for the Protection of Battered Children.
Time – International Children’s Day.
Dramatic dialogue – Organization heads against the childhood worlds of the contributors.
Style – Preaching… use of poetic elements, incorporating realistic tales from lives of unseen characters. (The contrast between styles is deliberately chosen to shock the audience, who have only just finished the dinner given in honor of the event).


 At first glance, the suggested Ten Principles for creating a dramatic speech may appear to give the impression that this is an absolute system, against which the speech writer may ask: ‘on whose authority? And what about that same straightforward, uninterrupted writing that develops intuitively?’  My reply is that, of course, I have absolutely nothing against this. In such a case the method can be used to examine the product after the event, following the inspired creativity.
 The proposed system can serve as tool for a balanced, relevant assessment in order to modify, polish and clarify the speech – those same matters that follow directly after inspiration and intuition.
 Those who wish to examine the system ‘at work’ can do so by applying it to ‘successful’ speeches. The more successful the speech, the more compete will appear to be its structure according to this method.
 If we subscribe to the ten principles, we are providing ourselves with a “safety net” during the writing and production of the speech, and with a “fine mesh sieve” for its analysis. If speech writer and makers follow these guidelines step by step, they will possess a useful tool that will help them avoid confusion and writer’s block – those enemies of any creative process, and most assuredly of every speaker.
 I conclude with a statement by an actor from the Cameri theatre, the late Arieh Kassbiner: ‘The talent you have to bring from home’.


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